This study offers a comprehensive assessment of the thermodynamic performance of a novel solar-based multigeneration system, which caters to the energy needs of a sustainable community by producing electricity, cooling, heating, and freshwater. The solar-based multigeneration system is comprised of four main components: the thermal subsystem of the parabolic trough collector (PTC) employing CO2 as a heat transfer fluid, a single-effect absorption refrigeration cycle (ARC), a supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) cycle, and an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with heat recovery employing aluminum fumarate metal–organic framework (MOF) adsorbent material. A comprehensive parametric study was performed on the proposed solar-based multigeneration system by varying key parameters to evaluate its performance. It is found that the thermal and exergy efficiencies of a PTC were evaluated to be 68.35% and 29.88%, respectively, at a fixed inlet temperature of 225 °C and solar irradiation of 850 W/m2 and also a slight reduction in the ARC cycle when examining the variation in the thermal and exergetic COPs for the generator temperature. Additionally, the thermal and exergy efficiencies of electricity, cooling, and heating were determined to be 20.41% and 21.93%, 41.34% and 3.51%, and 7.14% and 3.07%, respectively, at the operating condition. The maximum specific daily water production (SDWP) value of 12.91 m3/ton/day and a gain output ratio (GOR) of 0.64 were obtained under steady operating conditions in the AD cycle.