In this paper, a new efficient reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO) method is proposed for structures, in which the double-loop optimization is equivalently decoupled into a sequential process based on a performance shift strategy. First, a volume minimization RBTO formulation is built for structures considering displacement or compliance reliability constraints. Second, an efficient decoupling scheme is proposed to turn the double-loop RBTO into a series of deterministic topology optimization and reliability analysis. For the reliability analysis, the reliability probability is calculated based on the probability distribution function of the performance function, and the probability distribution function can be solved by the maximum entropy method based on the raw moments calculated by the multiplicative dimension reduction method. A performance shift strategy is then applied to build an equivalence between probabilistic constraint and deterministic constraint to formulate the deterministic topology optimization. Thirdly, the adjoint variable method is applied to obtain the sensitivity information for topological design variables, and a gradient-based optimization algorithm is used to update the design variables. Finally, four typical numerical examples are used to verify the advantage of the proposed method. Compared with the traditional sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) method, the proposed RBTO method results in a design with a 5.4% smaller volume value to reach the same reliability index requirement for the cantilever beam, and the function calls are 354 times less than that of the SORA method.