Currently, it still lacks the controlled studies which compare differences in the machinability between the TA15 alloy and network-structured TiBw/TA15 composites, which is not conducive to promoting the design and practical application of the TiBw/TA15 composites. Therefore, in this paper, the impact of material properties on the micro-scale cutting performances of the two materials is explored through the in-situ high-speed imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique. During the investigation, the chip formation process is recorded under diverse cutting load conditions, and the thermoplastic deformation in the shear plane is quantified using successive images and analyzed based on the microstructural and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the microstructural deformations in the machined subsurface are observed and evaluated for the two materials. The results indicate that the inhomogeneous deformation in micro-scale cutting that inevitably occurs in the TA15 alloy is improved in the TiBw/TA15 composites. And in comparison to the TA15 alloy, the TiBw/TA15 composites have greater temperatures and smaller accumulative plastic strain at failure in the shear plane due to the influences of macro- and micromechanical properties, while the comparison of equivalent strain rates between the two materials depends on the chip type of TA15 alloy. Accordingly, the subsurface deformation of the TA15 ally is notably anisotropic, while the microcracks and voids induced by TiBw reinforcement damage are evident in TiBw/TA15 composites. These findings can provide new insights into the future simulation and prediction of micro-cutting multiphase materials.