The application of Reynolds analogy $2St/cf\u22451$ for turbine flows is critically evaluated using experimental data collected in a low-speed wind tunnel. Independent measurements of St and $cf$ over a wide variety of test conditions permit assessments of the variation of the Reynolds analogy factor (i.e., $2St/cf)$ with Reynolds number, freestream pressure gradient, surface roughness, and freestream turbulence. While the factor is fairly independent of Reynolds number, it increases with positive (adverse) pressure gradient and decreases with negative (favorable) pressure gradient. This variation can be traced directly to the governing equations for momentum and energy which dictate a more direct influence of pressure gradient on wall shear than on energy (heat) transfer. Surface roughness introduces a large pressure drag component to the net skin friction measurement without a corresponding mechanism for a comparable increase in heat transfer. Accordingly, the Reynolds analogy factor decreases dramatically with surface roughness (by as much as 50% as roughness elements become more prominent). Freestream turbulence has the opposite effect of increasing heat transfer more than skin friction, thus the Reynolds analogy factor increases with turbulence level (by up to 35% at a level of 11% freestream turbulence). Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed variations are offered in each case. Finally, synergies resulting from the combinations of pressure gradient and freestream turbulence with surface roughness are evaluated. With this added insight, the Reynolds analogy remains a useful tool for qualitative assessments of complex turbine flows where both heat load management and aerodynamic efficiency are critical design parameters.

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