Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Fullerenes and their Derivatives
1 Introduction to fullerenes and PDT
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The fullerene molecule (originally Buckminsterfullerene) was first discovered by Kroto et al. in 1985 and is composed of 60 carbon atoms arranged in a soccer ball-shaped structure (C60) . Fullerenes have a molecular diameter of the order of 1 nm, however they are generally accepted as nanoparticles. Their use has been rapidly increasing in the nanotechnology field, especially in engineering and physics. Polymer solar cells, for instance, are based on conjugated polymers, and fullerene derivatives can be very attractive because of their mechanical flexibility as lubricants, simple fabrication process and the potential for their low-cost due to large-scale manufacture [2–4]....