This work presents the design and the corresponding stability analysis of a model-based, joint position tracking error constrained, adaptive output feedback (OFB) controller for robot manipulators. Specifically, provided that the initial joint position tracking error starts within a predefined region, the proposed controller algorithm ensures that the joint tracking error remains inside this region and asymptotically approaches zero, despite the lack of joint velocity measurements and uncertainties associated with the system dynamics. The constraint imposed on the position tracking error term ensures predictable overshoot for the overall system and enables a predetermined transient performance. The need for the joint velocity measurements is removed via the use of a surrogate filter formulation in conjunction with the use of desired model compensation. The stability and the convergence of the closed-loop system are proved via a barrier Lyapunov function (BLF)-based argument. Extensive numerical simulations and experimental studies performed on a two-link, direct-drive robotic manipulator are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.