Meta-materials are a class of artificial materials with a wide range of bulk properties that are different from the base material they are made of. The term meta-material in the context of this research refers to a continuous, heterogeneous structure with prescribed elastic properties. Such meta-materials are designed using Topology Optimization (TO). Tools like SIMP interpolation, mesh filtering and continuation methods are used to address the numerical issues with Topology Optimization.
In a previous research , by offsetting meta-material layers by a half-width of the Unit Cell, an auxetic honeycomb-like geometry was obtained. This was the first time such a shape was observed as the result of Topology Optimization targeting the effective shear modulus using square Unit Cells. This was obtained while designing the shear beam of a non-pneumatic wheel.
This research studies the design of meta-materials using offsets other than zero or half-widths. The same problem  was solved for different values of offset, and the obtained geometries and volume fractions are studied. It is concluded that it may be beneficial for designers to consider offsetting meta-material layers with offsets other than half-width, to design novel, potentially better performing structures.