Low temperature sintering of metal nanoparticle (NP) inks is a promising technique in realizing large area and flexible electronics. Previous research efforts on laser patterning of nanoparticle-laden materials in micro-fabrication as well as potential applications in nano-fabrication have sparked great interest in understanding the fundamental phenomena involved in nanoscale phase change and coalescence transformation. Molecular dynamics simulation has been applied to study nanoparticle sintering behavior. Optical methods including in-situ pump and probe technique and spectroscopic ellipsometry have been employed to study the characteristics of nanoparticle sintering and coalescence including coalescence time, temperature history and percolation transition, etc.

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