A system capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of a single DOF joint of the human arm was developed. The inertia, stiffness and damping produced by the passive tissue, as well as the muscle torque and its variable stiffness and damping specific to human shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger joints can be accurately reproduced. The torque created by external loads and by active assistive devices for people with disabilities, can be emulated. This allows the system to be used for safety and performance evaluation of control algorithms implemented in active orthotic, prosthetic, and rehabilitation devices in a safe and highly reproducible environment, before testing on actual human subjects.

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